Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Introduction This report looks at the two leadership styles and technique exhibited by both Sir Richard Branson and that of Mr. Terry Gou. Both leaders run their organisations with their own set of completely different characteristic traits and styles. The report will discuss how employees are treated at each organisation and what causes employees to be motivated or unmotivated while working for each particular organisation. The report discusses each different leadership style of Branson and Gou, by looking deeper and analysing a range of leadership and managerial concepts and theories that relate to their styles. Having clear goals acknowledged by employees and a vision of where the company wants to go is critical to success. The reportÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It aims to create a valuable and positive change in the workers and develop them into future leaders. (Kauppi, 2010) This is seen by Sir Richard Branson as he as a role model to his organisation and in his own way he inspires his entire company workforce by allowing workers to take large amounts of ownership for their own work instead than just taking direct orders from a manager in charge above them. This democratic management style is one that invites input from employees on all company decisions, delegated authority and encourages participation in deciding work methods. (Lecture 9 motivation, slide 12) Sir Richard Branson believes that interaction between employees and managers is fundamental. His leadership style also encourages bringing fun and enjoyment to the workplace, ultimately resulting in more efficient work output which can be proven via HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Two-factor Theory, where both Ã¢â¬Å"hygieneÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Satisfier factorsÃ¢â¬ are achieved with the managerial leadership from Sir Richard Branson. (Lecture 9 motivation, slide 12) Another characteristic of leadership style show from Sir Richard Branson is his method of hiring new staff. He believes that at times a person with multiple degrees in a certain field isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always better than someone with broad experience with a wonderful personality. (Branson,2013) If he notices a particular employee expr essing a passion for his job andShow MoreRelatedThe Leadership Styles And Behaviours Of The Ceo Of Virgin Group2062 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagessituations in two very different companies, where the leadership styles and behaviours of the CEO of one company and the owner of the second company are evident on a day- to-day basis. Comparing Richard BransonÃ¢â¬â¢s (CEO of Virgin Group) leadership style, behaviour, and his impact on employee motivation with Terry GouÃ¢â¬â¢s (Owner of Foxconn Factories) leadership style, behaviour and impact on employee motivation as well as suggesting improvements Gou could make to Foxconn to make it a more harmonious and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
This paper is mainly about the origin and discoveries of electricity and magnetism. It is solely a summary of two natural phenomenon which have changed everything about our way of life and has ushered us into a remarkable new age. Firstly and most importantly, it is about the underlying idea of how magnetism and electricity have come about, also it outlines and maps out the development and discoveries of sources of electricity and magnetism by many inventors and the latter discoveries of mega-production. When I was a little boy, I used to wonder what causes lightning and thunder. When rain comes, I sometimes see intermittent lightning for a while before you can hear the sound of a spark which is like two short-circuited power cables. At school, we all learnt about matter, which consists of atoms and molecules and every atom has a nucleus and electron(s), inside the nucleus contains an equal number of protons and neutrons. The electrons revolve round the nucleus of the atom in order to keep it stable. Protons are positively charged particles, neutrons are neutral and electrons are negative charge particles. The nucleus is surrounded by shells; these are simply orbitals in which an electron(s) can be found. The number of orbitals depends on how many electrons the atom has. The electrons which are in the outer most orbitals have a tendency of being lost or shared by another atom in order to create a more stable configuration. Long before any knowledge of electricity existedShow MoreRelatedThe Origin Of Electricity And Magnetism1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Origin of Electricity and Magnetism This paper is mainly about the origin and discoveries of electricity and magnetism. It is solely a summary of two natural phenomenon which have changed everything about our way of life and has ushered us into a remarkable new age. First and foremost, it is about the fundamental idea of how electricity and magnetism came about, then, the development and discoveries of sources of electricity and magnetism by many inventors and the latter discoveries of mega-productionRead MoreEngineering Essay1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe standard of living. Electricity was one of these identified ways. The development of electricity led to the creation of electrical engineering, a challenging vocation that changed and improved our way of life. In this paper I will discuss the history of electrical engineering, the preparation for becoming an electrical engineer, and the actual career. The history of electrical engineering is rather recent, but it is based on ancient ideas. Electricity and magnetism are the two bases for electricalRead MoreThe Compass: How a Small Navigational Instrument Changed the Face of the Earth1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexclusively on the compass for navigation. While Columbus used simply methods of dead reckoning, other explorers used more complicated methods, all of which the compass rested at the very center of their techniques. As one can comprehend, the discovery of the New World can be considered one of the greatest events in human history. Without the compass, the great navigators like Columbus and Magellan would have incredible difficulties in discovering their path. After all, it would only take a fewRead MoreThe Pursuit of a Theory of Everything1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesall areas of science, from biology to cosmology, and often reduces the complexity of calculations and leads to new predictions regarding related phenomena. In phy sics, the unification of seemingly unrelated concepts has led to a number of pivotal discoveries. Several physicists even posit that one ultimate Theory of Everything exists to explain the nature and behavior of all matter and energy in existence (Hawking and Mlodinow). This notion has intrigued scientists and philosophers for decades, thoughRead MoreElectricity and Magnetism5927 Words Ã |Ã 24 PagesElectricity and Magnetism History Electromagnetism Originally electricity and magnetism were thought of as two separate forces. This view changed, however, with the publication ofÃ James Clerk Maxwells 1873Treatise on Electricity and MagnetismÃ in which the interactions of positive and negative charges were shown to be regulated by one force. There are four main effects resulting from these interactions, all of which have been clearly demonstrated by experiments: 1. Electric charges attractRead MoreThe Discovery Of The Higgs Boson1580 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfour percent of all the knowable stuff the universe has to tell. New discoveries are being made every day about multitudes of subjects. Cures for diseases, new background into the first organisms to inhabit the planet, and new advances in personal technology occur so often that it may be difficult to be shocked by the world around us. However every so often a discovery is made, and an experiment goes perfectly right. The discovery of the Higgs Boson is that experiment. Well, metaphorically speakingRead MoreEssay on Faraday2921 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesreadily changes color in sunlight, follow here. In 1825 and 1826 Faraday published papers in the Philosophical Transactions on new compounds of carbon and hydrogen, and on sulphonaphthalic acid. In the former of these papers he announced the discovery of Benzol, which, in the hands of modern chemists, has become the foundation of our splendi d aniline dyes. But he swerved incessantly from chemistry into physics; and in 1826 we find him engaged in investigating the limits of vaporization, and showingRead More The Steam Engine and Electricity Powered the Industrial Revolution1704 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Steam Engine and Electricity Powered the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was an extremely important historical process in which the societies and cultures in the West, and then throughout the world, transformed under the influence of technological and scientific progress. The Western world, as industrialized as it is today, is the final result. Two major inventions, the steam engine and electricity, were both crucial parts of the technological progress that turned the wheelsRead More Pierre And Marie Curie Essay1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPierre and Marie Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Marie and Pierre Curies pioneer research was again brought to mind when nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;on 20 April last year, their bodies were taken from their place of burial at Sceaux, nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;just outside Paris, and in a solemn ceremony were laid to rest under the mighty nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;dome of the PanthÃ ©on. Marie Curie thusRead MoreThe Pursuit of a Theory of Everything1237 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis still far from proposing an experimentally tested Theory of Everything, it is the closest explanation to date and given more time it may prove to be correct. Yet evidently, there are several flaws in arguing that String Theory will lead to the discovery of the Theory of Everything. It has not provided substantial experimental evidence that would confirm or deny the claims it makes, nor has it advanced the unification of any force laws (Campbell). While it provides meaningful values on paper, the
Define metabolism: The sum of all biological chemical reactions inside a cell or organism Differences in catabolism and anabolism: Catabolism is an enzyme-regulated chemical reaction that releases energy. Complex organic compounds such as glucose, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids are broken down into simpler ones. The energy of catabolic reactions is used to drive the anabolic reactions. We will write a custom essay sample on Microbiology Study Guide Unit 2 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Anabolism is also enzyme regulated but requires energy for taking the simpler broken down components from the catabolism phase and building them into complex molecules such as starch, proteins and lipids What is the role of ATP? ATP is the driving force for catabolic and anabolic reactions. ATP stores energy that is produced from the catabolic reactions which is later released to drive the anabolic reaction and other cellular work. ATP is stored energy in cells (phosphate groups held together by high energy reacting bonds) ATP is required for synthesis and some of the energy is given off as heat What are enzymes and their components? Enzymes are biological catalysts (substances that speed up a chemical reaction without themselves being permanently altered) Components: Apoenzyme is the protein portion of an enzyme. Inactive by themselves, must be activated by cofactors Cofactor- non protein portion (IE: ions of iron, zinc, magnesium and calcium) ****If the cofactor is an organic molecule, it is called a coenzyme Holoenzyme- The apoenzyme+cofactor forms the holoenzyme. It is the active enzyme. If you remove the cofactor, the apoenzyme will not function. **Cofactors may assist the enzyme by accepting atoms removed from the substrate or by donating atoms required by the substrate. Substrate=the specific substance that an enzyme will act on) **The crucial function of enzymes is to speed up biochemical reactions at temperatures that are compatible with the normal functioning of the cell. What are metabolic pathways? The sequence of enzyme catalyzed chemical reactions within a cell. What is the KrebÃ¢â¬â¢s cycle? A pathway that converts two-carbon compounds to CO2, transferring electrons to NAD+ and other carriers; also called tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or citric acid cycle A series of biochemical reactions in which a large amount of potential chemical energy stored in acetyl CoA is released step by step. In the cycle, a series of oxidations and reductions transfer that potential energy in the form of electrons to electron carrier coenzymes (mostly NAD+). The pyruvic acid derivatives are oxidized and the coenzymes are produced. KrebÃ¢â¬â¢s cycle is for lipid catabolism. Glycerol is converted into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and catabolized via glycolysis and the KrebÃ¢â¬â¢s cycle. Fatty acids undergo beta-oxidation, in which carbon fragments are spit off two at a time to form acetyl CoA which is catabolized by KrebÃ¢â¬â¢s cycle. What is glycolysis? **Glycolysis creates to ATP molecules The main pathway for oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid: Glycolysis is usually the first stage in carbohydrate catabolism. This occurs from the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid. Most microorganisms use this pathway and it occurs in most living cells. The term Ã¢â¬Å"glycolysisÃ¢â¬ means the splitting of sugar. The sugars are oxidized, release energy and then their atoms are rearranged to form 2 molecules of pyruvic acid. **Glycolysis does not require oxygen! Explanation of cellular respiration: Cellular respiration takes place after the glucose is broken down in pyruvic acid which is then channeled into the next step of either fermentation or cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is defined as the ATP-generating process in which most molecules are oxidized and the final electron acceptor is (almost always) an inorganic molecule. **operates via an electron transport chain * Aerobic respiration the final electron acceptor is O2 Anaerobic respiration the final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule other than O2 What is an electron transport chain and why is it important? It is a system in which electrons pass through a series of different electron carriers to molecules or oxygen or other oxidized inorganic and organic molecules. The process occurs in the plasma membrane of the prokaryotes and in the mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes. What is microbial growth? It is the growth in numbers of populations or an increase in the numb er of cells What are three physical requirements of microbial growth? PH, temperature and moisture Define psychotrophs: Are cold loving microbes, will usually be found growing in the refrigerator such as listeria (20-25oC) How does PH affect growth? Certain bacteria thrive in a specific PH environment. Acidophiles like a PH of 5. 4 or below whereas Neutrophiles (most human pathogens) prefer a more neutral environment (5. 5-7. 5 PH) Define halophiles: Extreme halophiles (obligate halophiles) are microbes that require a high salt concentration that is required for growth. Faccultative halophiles (most common) are microbes that do not require high salt concentrations for growth but can tolerate high salt solutions. How does osmotic pressure effect microbial growth? Microorganisms obtain most of all their nutrients in solutions surrounding water; therefore water is required for growth. They are composed of 80-90% water. High osmotic pressures have the effect of removing vital water from a cell. If a microbe is in a solution in which the concentration of solutes is higher than in the cell, the microbe is in a hypertonic environment which will create pressure on the cell. It will crush the cell causing the cells water to push out through the plasma membrane into the high solute concentration. What are some chemical requirements for microbes? Carbon- one of the most important for microbes next to water because it is the structural backbone Nitrogen- it is required for protein synthesis (requires some sulfur), also needed for DNA or RNA synthesis (needs some phosphorous) Vitamins and minerals- needed for essential function of enzymes, usually as co-factors. What are some organic growth factors? Essential organic compounds an organism is unable to synthesize are known as organic growth factors. They must be directly obtained by the environment. One group of organic growth factors is vitamins for human. What is a media? A media is a nutrient prepared for the growth of microorganisms. In the lab we use nutrient broths and nutrient agars. What are canophiles? Canophiles (aerobic bacteria) are microbes that grow better at high CO2 concentrations. Low oxygen high CO2 conditions resemble those found in the intestinal tract, digestive tract and other body tissues where pathogens grow. Why is a selective media desireable? Because a selective media will suppress the growth of unwanted bacteria while encouraging the growth of the desired microbes. How do prokaryotes reproduce? Reproduce by binary fission (most common) while others may go through a Ã¢â¬Å"buddingÃ¢â¬ process 2 Categories used to control microbes (physical and chemical) Physical: Heat (dry heat such as flame or in hot ovens) heat will denature the protein causing the proteins shape to change making it no longer usable by the organism. Or (moist heat) such as with an autoclave which will force steam inside of the organism very quickly and cause it to break down Chemical: surfactants such as soaps which will work as a binding agen to the microorganism causing it to break off and be rinsed off or phenols which will disrupt the cell membrane or denature the protein therefore disrupting protein synthesis What are physical methods to control microbes? * Heat (dry and moist heat) * Cold * Radiation * Membrane filtration * Drying * Osmotic pressure What are the most common and effective ways of controlling microbes? An autoclave machine that utilizes heat, steam and pressure to kill microbes and their endospores in about 15 minutes (prions are not killed) Is it more effective to control or kill microbes? It is more effective to control the microbes because we can study live bacteria, but not if they are dead Why would we want to control microbial growth? Controlling microbes can prevent infections and food spoilage Compare and contrast chromosomes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Prokaryotes have 1 chromosome (only one allele) Eukaryotes have 2 chromosomes (2 alleles) DNA is not always the genetic material. What are the exceptions? How could mutations give rise to new alleles of a gene? How does translation differ from transcription? Transcription in the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template Translation is the protein synthesis that involves decoding of nucleic acid and converting the information into the language of the proteins What are the differences between the leading and lagging strand? Leading strand gets replicated sequentially and gets filled first. The lagging is the strand that gets replicated sporadically based off of what is left. What are three types of RNA and what do they do? Messenger RNA (mRNA): carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Transfer RNA (tRNA): transfers the necessary sequence by carrying the code. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): helps in synthesis of proteins. Explain mutations: A mutation is the change in the base sequence of DNA. Some mutations are bad such as when the gene for an enzyme mutates. The enzyme encoded by the gene may become inactive or less active because its amino acid sequence has changed. But a mutation can also be beneficial such as when an altered enzyme encoded by the mutant gene suddenly has new or enhanced activity that will benefit the cell. List and discuss common mutagens: Define genetic engineering: Manufacturing and manipulating genetic material in vitro also called recombinant DNA (rDNA ) What is recombinant DNA? A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from two different sources. Exchange of genes between two DNA molecules) **Contributes to a populations genetic diversity (source of variation in evolution) What are three processes involved in making recombinant DNA? Transformation in Bacteria Conjugation in bacteria Transduction in bacteria What is a restriction enzyme? An enzyme that cuts double stranded DNA at specific sites between nucleotides Pg. 249 What is conjugation? The transfer of genetic material from one to another involving cell to ce ll contact What is a plasmid? A small circular DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosome How to cite Microbiology Study Guide Unit 2, Essay examples
Thursday, April 23, 2020
The themes of conformity, rebellion, and knowledge are presented throughout Fahrenheit 415 and The Allegory of the Cave. The theme of this drawing combines these elements, which demonstrate that even though one can estrange himself from society, (Like the characters Harrison and Montag in Harrison Bergeron and Fahrenheit 451) one can never completely break from its constraints. One may find that even though his mind is free, old habits imposed as conformity are hard to control. How ever these actions occur, whether consciously or unconsciously, show that culture is a lasting impression and continuous force upon the human soul. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Allegory of the Cave shows that even encountering the ultimate truth, Ã¢â¬Å"returning to the cave they would see much worse than those who never left itÃ¢â¬ (Plato 1). Although the cave prisoner came into the light and seeing the ultimate knowledge of his surroundings, he still could not comprehend his past life which was left behind. We will write a custom essay sample on The Allegory of the Cave or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the drawing, although the Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ world is right outside of the cave; it cannot outshine the darkness of it. The cave also symbolizes the ignorance pored forth into the utopia of an honest and truthful world, and the fact that no matter how right or courageous or true something has became, its past always has a way of coming back and altering that truth. Other characters that defy cultural challenges and conformity include Harrison Bergeron and his Ã¢â¬Å"empressÃ¢â¬ ballerina (Vonnegut 1). She takes the initial step to fly with Harrison; to Ã¢â¬Å"neutralize gravity with love and pure willÃ¢â¬ (Vonnegut 1). Harrison and the ballerina break free from the suppression for only moments; to be shot down in their highest moment of bliss and knowledge of love. HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s culture drags him back down to earth, so that his attempt at complete rebellion is not possible. In the drawing, the ballerina is sitting by the fire in the wilderness; away from civilization. Tied to her wrist are the weights imposed because of her strength. The weights are symbolic of her flight to freedom and never reaching that goal. Montag, the central protagonist in Fahrenheit 451, is an example of successful rebellion against ignorance. He efficaciously escapes intellectual suppression, and is not affected emotionally by the event which occurred antecedent to his departure. Before the great bomb which destroys the city; what impact did he truly make upon his fellow colleagues? Granger once said that there is Ã¢â¬Å"Something funny thereÃ¢â¬ in that although Montag liberates his mind, he has no immediate impact upon society or positive attribute to the common good (Bradbury, 149). This relates to the central theme of the artwork in that Montag was able to break away from society, but he was unable to break others free as well. The visual demonstrated this by the depiction of the very large, Ã¢â¬Å"200 foot billboardsÃ¢â¬ in the countryside. The billboard overlooks the entire scene, which shows the omniscient control of society on all characters, including Montag, Harrison, the ballerina, and prisoners of the cave (Bradbury 29). Lastly, the bottom right corner of the artwork is torn, revealing a part of ClarisseÃ¢â¬â¢s dark eyes and pallid face. In Fahrenheit 451, Clarisse is intellectually free, while her classmates consider her strange. Clarisse says herself that Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m antisocialÃ¢â¬ ¦I donÃ¢â¬â¢t mixÃ¢â¬ ¦ its strangeÃ¢â¬ (Bradbury 29). Clarisse understands that although her liberation of thought can change others around her, she is incapable of penetrating the thick wall of modern culture and bias. The drawing of Clarisse (which looks like the corner of the drawing is folded to reveal her face) represents the turning of the page into knowledge and light. It also infers that a clean slate is needed to begin anew. In conclusion, darkness and light exist coherently. Heroes of knowledge cannot shake off ignorance from all people, and rebels cannot up heave an entire culture with an angry shout. Breaking away from society is liberating, but not completely fulfilling. It follows like a ghost, until they can believe Ã¢â¬Å"in all the things that never made the screenÃ¢â¬ (Jack Johnson).
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Recruitment and Selection are only effective when they complement HRM Strategy and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall Business Strategy. Discuss The WritePass Journal
Recruitment and Selection are only effective when they complement HRM Strategy and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall Business Strategy. Discuss Introduction Recruitment and Selection are only effective when they complement HRM Strategy and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall Business Strategy. Discuss IntroductionHR main function interrelationship in most organisations:Recruitment SelectionThe universalistic perspectiveThe contingency perspectiveThe configurational perspectiveLinking Company-Wide and HRM strategiesManagerial CompetenciesStrategic human resource challengesConclusion REFERENCESRelated Introduction In the twenty-first century, organisations face an intense competitive environment. In order to compete effectively against their rivals organisations have to be indulged in the strengthening of their performance unceasingly. Managers are obliged to go beyond their required duties. Thus they require applying and using alternative ways for their organisations develop, move and learn faster compared to their rivals. Ã¢â¬Å"Organisational resources and capabilities that are rare and creating value in a unique way are required such that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not easily copiedÃ¢â¬ (Barney, 1986; 1991; 1995). This is called the resource-based view, which states that Ã¢â¬Ëcompetitive advantage of a firm lies mainly in the use of the package of valuable resources used by an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Conner, 1991; Wernerfeldt, 1984). Thus for a company to gain competitive advantage, it is vital for the latter to manage their capital, financial or human resources efficiently. All financial and capital resources of an organisation are solely managed by the organisationsÃ¢â¬â¢ human capabilities (employees). Therefore it is vital that an organisation has a skilled, committed and Ã¢â¬Ëstrategic partnerÃ¢â¬â¢ (employee whose performance align HR and business strategy). Human resource can be describe as the aggregated skills, knowledge, talents, ability to create, the workforce of an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s values, along with their talents and aptitudes, approaches andÃ beliefs involved. HR professionals should be able to apply best practices of HR. Pfefer (1994) has suggested that Ã¢â¬Å"participation, empowerment, incentive pay, promotion from within, and training and skill development are some of the best practicesÃ¢â¬ . HR managers derive new policies and procedures taking into account HR functions in order to have better empowerment and achieve the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s goal. HR functions are recruitment and selection and placement of personnel, training and development by maintain motivation, appraisal of performance and feedback counselling, transfer and job rotation, compensation and benefits (salary, cash and non-cash benefits), social security and welfare of employees,Ã contract negotiation and grievance handling, health and safety, employee and labour relationship, auditing and review of the man-power management within the firm and ensure quality work life and firmÃ¢â¬â¢s development. HR main function interrelationship in most organisations: Recruitment Selection The first and foremost function of HR is Recruitment and Selection of employees as and when required. It can arise due to expansion, strategic alliances (merger and acquisitions), delayering (the need of reducing management due to downsizing or reduction of cost of the organisation) and promotion or someone leaving or temporary requirement. Rynes (1991); Rynes Cable (2003) outlined that Ã¢â¬Ërecruitment is the utilization of an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s practices such that the number and types of applicants are influenced to apply for vacanciesÃ¢â¬â¢. Thus recruitment can be described as the process in which an organisation is indulged such that applicants are attracted to apply for any vacancies arising and selecting the appropriate candidates and ensure that they are armed with the suitable training such that they are able to perform at an optimal level. Recruitment can be internal or external focussed. Whereas Selection has been best described by Roberts (1997) defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The purpose of the selection is to match people to work. It is the most important element in any organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s management of people simply because it is not possible to optimise the effectiveness of human resources, by whatever method, if there is a less than adequate match.Ã¢â¬ (Robert, 1997) Hence the way that information is collected and evaluated about the candidate and select the appropriate applicant in order to extend employment offer is termed as selection and it is always performed under legal and environmental constraints and also highlights interest of the individual and the organisation. Once recruitment and selection is over, training is enforced in order the staff is able to perform in accordance to the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s procedures where the vision and mission of the company is also clearly outlined. Human Resource Management (HRM) has recently been changed into a macro perspective of HRM and been termed as Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM), (Delery Doty, 1996).Thus in order for HR policies to be effective, it have to be consistent with other aspects of the organisation. In other words SHRM highlights the very importance of HR practices for a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance (Delery Doty, 1996). Further Dessler (2008, p.86) demarcated SHRM Ã¢â¬Å"The formulation and execution of human resource policies and practices that produce the employee competencies and behaviours the company need to achieve its strategic aimsÃ¢â¬ . Pfeffer (1994) best practices Ã¢â¬Å" These best practices are employment security, selectivity in recruiting, high wages, incentive pay, employee ownership, information sharing, participation and empowerment, teams and job redesign, training and skill development, cross-utilization and cross-training, symbolic egalitarianism, wage compression, promotion from within, long-term perspective, measurement of the practices, overarching philosophyÃ¢â¬ SHRM objectives are to utilise the best practices and achieve the following: Ensure companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals are achieve Effective utilisation and maximisation development of HR Respecting, identifying and satisfying individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs Reconciling the employees goals and thatÃ of the firm Provision of well-trained and well-motivated staffs Morale of staffs are kept high Ensuring that job satisfaction and self-actualisation is attained to its maximum Develop and maintain quality of work life Developing personality of staffs in its multidimensional aspect. Staff capabilities being enhance to perform actual job To be responsive at the ethical and social needs of the society Ensure staffs are equipped precisely and clearly in the transaction of business Team spirit being inculcate such that team work and inter-team collaboration is gained SHRM objectives are vital objectives in an organisation as it directly relates to the performance and competitive advantage of the firm. Competitive advantage is attained through continuous HRM and the business strategy being outlined from the outset. Business strategy has been described as the art of and crafting, implementing and the evaluation of cross-functional decisions that allows a firm realise its long-term goals. Whereby the specification of vision, mission and objectives policies and plans being developed and finally allocating resources to implement policies, plans and projects. An inter-related relationship between HRM and Business Strategy can be illustrated as follows: Administrative Elements Of HRM which are transferable between organisation Firstly the above diagram indicates that it should all start with the inner circle vision, values, objectives and strategies of the organisation. In other words the organisation should set its vision, objectives and then strategies of the organisation firstly. Subsequently the HR roles should be assigned in alignment with the strategic decisions taken when objectives and strategies are set. For the strategic decisions outlined, the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s HR policies are varyingly set and differ from organisation to organisations. Administrative elements of HRM which are transferable between organisations are the grey-blue outer circle. Hence the diagram clearly outline that the interrelationship of the business strategy, HR practices and HRM. Ulrich (1997) has mentioned in regards to SHRM and highlighted how HR professionals can be a strategic partner within an organisation. This can be achieved by professional working in accordance to managers who have set up strategies and process such that objectives and set targets are attained by the department to meet requirements of the ultimate business. While managing an organisation frameworks are set and in accordance to Delery and Doty (1996) the three within SHRM namely universalistic, contingency perspective and configurationally approach. They have established that the three mentioned perceptions are feasible theories within SHRM however they have separate outcome on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and its strategy and HR practices. The universalistic perspective Ã Here the best practices of HR are being referred. Ã¢â¬Å"The best practices have been mentioned previously and they vital to a firm when undertaking strategy implementation so that sustainable competitive advantage is gained by the organisationÃ¢â¬ (Huselid, 1993; Pfeffer1994). It is also the simplest theoretical statement in SHRM. Here the argument is that the connections in regards to independent and dependable variables are universal across the firms. The universalistic approach can be established by proceeding with the two following steps: Identification of strategic HR practices The urge of looking for the arguments in relation to the practices and the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Pfeffer (1994) mention sixteen best ones but on the on other hand Delery and Doty (1996) outlines only seven which has been mentioned before. The contingency perspective Ã When comparing the universalistic to the contingency perspective, the contingency is more complex as it considers the interaction of instead the linear relations only. Primarily the contingent factor of an organisation is the business strategy and using this perspective, investigators will have to opt for theories for the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. Afterwards specification of how the interaction of each HR practices will effect along with the strategy and if enhancement of the organisation performance is attained. The configurational perspective Ã Delery and Doty (1996) has debated upon this approach as the most complex one. Since this perspective does not exclusively focus on internal resources nor on an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s environment but on the shared influence of a set variables. The unique pattern or the configurations are identified which is assumed to be most effective for an organisation (Delery Doty, 1996). Hence it models the interrelationships. Ã Linking Company-Wide and HRM strategies Ã In the figure below, Dessler (2007) has elaborated on the process and how HR strategies and corporate strategies go along side of each other Ã¢â¬Ëhand in handÃ¢â¬â¢. Strategic situations are brought along by the competitiveness, internal strength and weaknesses of the organisation whereby strategic plans are formulated. While formulating the strategies various questions arise. For instance, how cost can be lowered such that profits are maximised, when or where it is best to expand and is there the requirement for diversification. Further the HR strategies which will be formulated and implemented should comply with the overall corporate strategies. The recruitment and selection, training and development, appraisal of employees are required to be synced such that it supports the strategic plan of the organisation. The very question of how well does company strategies are aligned to the HR strategies formulated and applied will directly have effect on the organisation overall performance. The main aim of this model above is to appraise the HR strategies and corporate Strategies alignment. Organisational performance and strategic situation are normally not included in the purpose. But we have taken them into consideration as they are of vital role within the process of aligning. That is due to the fact that the strategic planningÃ¢â¬â¢s outcome is the strategic situation and it is essential if in case the constructed plan by the firm does not fit the strategic situation expected. This can affect the HR strategies and the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance at the end adversely. Ã Managerial Competencies Firstly, Westley Mintzberg, (1989), in Lado Wilson, (1994) has described that Ã¢â¬Å"Managerial Competencies includes exclusive capabilities of the leaders in propagating the strategic vision, communicating the vision and investing in the employees such that the firm is able to realise the visionÃ¢â¬ . Hence this capability can give rise a very useful environment for the firm. Enacting this organisational environment gives the employees a way to interpret and act upon the vision that was conveyed. The managerial view is seen as a source of competitive advantage due to its decisive nature upon the organisations resources (Lado Wilson, 1994). Thus one of the HR systems that can enhance this competence is development and creation of managerial competencies. Top managers and middle managers are utilised in the creation of the strategic vision and the managerial competencies are let through the organisation (Lado Wilson, 1994). Thus the traditional view of effective communication an d ease the interpretation and understanding of the vision is vital. Ã Strategic human resource challenges Thus from the above it is obvious if these challenges must be made primary and achieved and also much more focus must be made on designing not only execution of strategies. Conclusion Ã Hence it is obvious that recruitment and selection is only effective when it complement with HRM strategies and business strategies. As the recruiting of highly qualified and skilled employees cannot achieve anything unless they are armed with the appropriate tools, practices and procedures which are closely managed by HRM within the organisation. The interrelationship between recruitment and HRM and the overall business has been explicitly explained above but the effects of poor recruitment can result in high costs incurred in terms of time of money and time, inefficiency, client dissatisfaction and disability in team work and low morality. Hence not only recruitment and selection needs to be effective but also proper training and appraisals to maintain level of performance and appropriate rewards and benefits are required to motivate the employees to maintain a high level of performance. Whilst the SHRM should maintain a regular high level of assessment throughout the employees per formance, environment and other factors affecting directly and ensure that the objectives and the business vision is achieved within the set period. As under the current economic climate businesses tend to cut down on the size such that they can survive thus they should be able to trust be able to rely on effective HRM. A recent example is the Icon Film Distribution Ltd which was taken over by Stewart Till and Access industries and because of the economic situation prevailing in UK and their performance in the film market they have opted to downsizing. REFERENCES Schuler, R. S., Jackson, S. E. (1987). Linking competitive strategies with human resource practices. Academy of Management Executive, 1, 207-219. Pfeffer, J. 1994. Competitive advantage through people: Unleashing the power of the work force. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Rogers, E. W., Wright, P. (1998). Measuring organizational performance in strategic human resource management research: Problems, prospects, and performance information markets. Human Resource Management Review, 8, 311-331. Elearn Limited (2005) Ã¢â¬Å"Recruitment an selectionÃ¢â¬ , Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK. Colakoglu, S., lepak, D. P., Hong, Y. (2006). Measuring HRM effectiveness: considering multiple stakeholders in a global context. Human Resource Management Review. 16, 209-218. netlibrary.com.ezproxy.wales.ac.uk:2048/Reader/ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=zEoAUt-3CVQCpg=PA228dq=hr+recruitment+selection+training+and+development+rewards+and+benefits+from+bookshl=enei=MayRTaiFHM6DhQf2oOWGDwsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=2ved=0CEIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepageqf=false
Sunday, March 1, 2020
James Madison, 4th President of the United States James Madison (March 16, 1751Ã¢â¬âJune 28, 1836) served as Americas 4th president, navigating the country through the War of 1812. Madison was known as the Father of the Constitution, for his role in its creation, and a man who served during a key time in the development of America.Ã Fast Facts: James Madison Known For: Americas 4th president and the Father of the ConstitutionBorn: March 16, 1751 in King George County, VirginiaParents:Ã James Madison, Sr. and Eleanor Rose Conway (Nelly), m. September 15, 1749Died: June 28, 1836 in Montpelier, VirginiaEducation: Robertsons School, College of New Jersey (which would later become Prrinceton University)Spouse: Dolley Payne Todd (m. September 15, 1794)Children: One stepson, John Payne Todd Early Life James Madison was born on March 16, 1751, the eldest child of James Madison, Sr., a plantation owner, and Eleanor Rose Conway (known as Nelly), the daughter of a wealthy planter. He was born at his mothers stepfathers plantation on the Rappahannock River in King George County, Virginia, but the family soon moved to James Madison Sr.s plantation in Virginia. Montpelier, as the plantation would be named in 1780, would be Madison Jr.s home for most of his life. Madison had six brothers and sisters: Francis (b. 1753), Ambrose (b. 1755), Nelly (b. 1760), William (b. 1762), Sarah (b. 1764), Elizabeth (b. 1768); the plantation also held more than 100 enslaved persons. The earliest education of James Madison, Jr. was at home, probably by his mother and grandmother, and at a school located on his fathers plantation. In 1758, he began attending the Robertson School, run by Scottish tutor Donald Robertson, where he studied English, Latin, Greek, French, and Italian, as well as history, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and geography. Between 1767 and 1769, Madison studied under the rector Thomas Martin, who was hired by the Madison family for that purpose. Education Madison attended the College of New Jersey (which would become Princeton University in 1896) from 1769Ã¢â¬â1771. He was an excellent student and studied a range of subjects, including oratory, logic, Latin, geography, and philosophy. Perhaps more importantly, he made close friendships at New Jersey, included the American poet Philip Freneau, writer Hugh Henry Brackenridge, lawyer and politician Gunning Bedford Jr., and William Bradford, who would become the second attorney general under George Washington. But Madison grew ill in college, and stayed in Princeton after he graduated until April 1772, when he returned home. He was sickly most of his life, and modern scholars believe he likely suffered from epilepsy. Early Career Madison didnt have a vocation when he left school, but he soon became interested in politics, an interest perhaps stirred but at least fed by his continuing correspondence with William Bradford. The political situation in the country must have been exhilarating: his zeal for freedom from Britain was very strong. His first political appointment was as a delegate to the Virginia Convention (1776), and then he served in the Virginia House of Delegates three times (1776Ã¢â¬â1777, 1784Ã¢â¬â1786, 1799Ã¢â¬â1800). While in the Virginia house, he worked with George Mason to write Virginias constitution; he also met and established a lifelong friendship with Thomas Jefferson. Madison served on the Council of State in Virginia (1778Ã¢â¬â1779) and then became a member of the Continental Congress (1780Ã¢â¬â1783). Father of the Constitution Madison first called for a Constitutional Convention in 1786, and when it was convened in 1787 he wrote most of the U.S. Constitution, which outlined a strong federal government. Once the Convention ended, he, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton together wrote the Federalist Papers, a collection of essays that were intended to sway public opinion to ratifying the new Constitution. Madison served as a U.S. Representative from 1789Ã¢â¬â1797. On September 15, 1794, Madison marriedÃ Dolley Payne Todd,Ã a widow and socialite who set the pattern for the behavior of White House first ladies for centuries to come. She was a well-liked hostess throughout Jeffersons and Madisons time in office, holding convivial parties with both sides of the Congress in attendance. She and Madison had no children, although John Payne Todd (1792Ã¢â¬â1852), Dolleys son from her first marriage, was raised by the couple; her son William had died in the 1793 yellow fever epidemic that killed her husband. In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, in 1798 Madison drafted the Virginia Resolutions, a work that was hailed by anti-federalists. He was secretary of state under President Thomas Jefferson from 1801Ã¢â¬â1809. Embargo Act and the Presidency By 1807, Madison and Jefferson became alarmed at increasing reports on upheavals in Europe suggesting that Britain would soon go to war with Napoleons France. The two powers declared war and demanded that other nations needed to commit to a side. Since neither the Congress nor the administration were ready for all-out war, Jefferson called for an immediate embargo on all American shipping. That, said Madison, would protect American vessels from almost certain seizure, and deprive European nations of a needed trade that might force them to allow the U.S. to remain neutral. Passed on December 22, 1807, the Embargo Act would soon prove unpopular, an unpopularity that eventually led to U.S. involvement in the War of 1812. In the 1808 election, Jefferson supported Madisons nomination to run, and George Clinton was chosen to be his vice president. He ran against Charles Pinckney, who had opposed Jefferson in 1804. Pinckneys campaign centered around Madisons role with the Embargo Act; nevertheless, Madison won 122 of the 175 electoral votes. Negotiating Neutrality Early in 1808, Congress replaced the Embargo Act with the Non-Intercourse Act, which allowed the U.S. to trade with all nations except France and Great Britain because of the attacks on American shipping by those two nations. Madison offered to trade with either nation if it would stop harassing American ships. However, neither agreed. In 1810, Macons Bill No. 2 was passed, repealing the Non-Intercourse Act and replacing that with a promise that whichever nation would stop harassing American ships would be favored and the U.S. would stop trading with the other nation. France agreed to this and the British continued to stop American ships and impress sailors. By 1811, Madison easily won the renomination for the Democratic-Republicans, despite being opposed by DeWitt Clinton. The campaigns main issue was the War of 1812, and Clinton attempted to appeal to both those for and against the war. Madison won with 128 out of 146 votes. War of 1812: Mr. Madisons War When Madison started his second administration, the British were still forcibly attacking American ships, seizing their cargo, and impressing their sailors. Madison asked Congress to declare war: but support for it was far from unanimous. The war, sometimes called the Second War for Independence (because it resulted in the end of U.S. economic dependence on Britain), pitted a barely prepared U.S. against the well-trained force that was Great Britain. On June 18, 1812, Madison signed a declaration of war against Great Britain, after Congress, for the first time in American history, voted to declare war against another nation. Americas first battle was a disaster called the Surrender of Detroit: The British, led by Major General Isaac Brock, and Native American allies, led by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, attacked the port city of Detroit on August 15Ã¢â¬â16, 1812. U.S. Brigadier General William Hull surrendered the town and fort, despite having a larger army. America fared better on the seas, and eventually retook Detroit. The British marched on Washington in 1814, and on August 23 they attacked and burned the White House. Dolley Madison famously stayed in the White House until she ensured that many national treasures were saved. The New England Federalists met at the Hartford Convention in late 1814 to discuss pulling out of the war, and there was even talk of secession at the convention. But, on December 24, 1814, the U.S. and Great Britain agreed to the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the fighting but resolved none of the pre-war issues. Retirement After his presidential term in office ended, Madison retired to his plantation in Virginia. However, he still stayed involved in political discourse. He represented his county at the Virginia Constitutional Convention (1829). He also spoke against nullification, the idea that states could rule federal laws unconstitutional. His Virginia Resolutions were often cited as a precedent for this but he believed in the strength of the union above all. He took a leadership role in the formation of the University of Virginia, especially after Thomas Jeffersons death in 1826. Madison was also a slave owner- Montpelier had 118 slaves at one point- who helped found the notorious American Colonization Society to help resettle freed blacks in what would become Liberia, Africa. Death Although Madison remained vigorous and active during his early retirement, beginning after his 80th birthday in 1829, he began to suffer from longer and longer spells of fever and rheumatism. Eventually he was confined to Montpelier, although he continued working when he could through the winter of 1835Ã¢â¬â1836. On June 27, 1836, he spent several hours writing a thank you note to George Tucker, who had dedicated his biography of Thomas Jefferson to him. He died the next day. Legacy James Madison was in power at an important time. Even though America did not end the War of 1812 as the ultimate victor, it did end with a stronger and independent economy. As the author of the Constitution, Madisons decisions made during his time as president were based on his interpretation of the document, and he was well-respected for that. In the end, Madison attempted to follow the Constitution and tried not to overstep the boundaries set before him as he interpreted them. Sources Broadwater, Jeff. James Madison: A Son of Virginia and a Founder of the Nation. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.Cheney, Lynne. James Madison: A Life Reconsidered. New York: Penguin Books, 2014.Feldman, Noah. The Three Lives of James Madison: Genius, Partisan, President. New York: Random House, 2017.Gutzman, Kevin R. C. James Madison and the Making of America. New York, St. Martins Press, 2012.Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. University of Virginia, 1990.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Case Study Example mber of clients who buy specific good, the bigger the number of customers who use the good or the service, the more the value will the good have to every user. Economies of networking in the GrouponÃ¢â¬â¢s model rise, immediately when the threshold is achieved, in the arrangement of product discounts to the clients who take part in the system of the organization. Therefore, the bigger the threshold the greater the discount gets. This implies that economies of networking depend on the demand factor of the product market due to the establishment of the customer bargaining authority with product retailers. Groupons business model is designed to make a fee for linking suppliers of products and services with clients by means of striking, discounted proposals. This is actually an old business model and manner of conducting business: suppliers have dispersed discount s for a lengthy period; the notion of loss leader is antique to such an organization. A major amount of the challenge that the company is presently facing are the charges it sustained developing as great as it has become in a short period of time. This rapid development is accompanied with it some noteworthy overhead expenditures (Sayan, Sarah and Alison